90 Resources Found
Addressing the Gaps in Security Sector Training: The Detention of Child Soldiers
1 March 2017
This chapter (p.389-402) in the book "Protecting Children against Torture in Detention: Global Solutions for a Global Problem" published by the Anti-Torture Initiative at the Washington College of Law explores the unique role of child soldiers as children, victims, and as soldiers which each must be considered in the comprehensive response of security sector actors in their demobilization and protection. Case studies of child soldiers detained as security threats and violations they experience including torture, ill-treatment, and arbitrary detention highlight the urgent need for better training in the security sector. Recommendations for the training of security sector actors on child soldiers includes to frame trainings in the overall prevention of child soldiers, pre-deployment training for confrontation with child soldiers, and the inclusion of specific child protection concerns in line with the 'best interests of the child' principle.
International Protocol on the Documentation and Investigation of Sexual Violence in Conflict: Best Practice on the Documentation of Sexual Violence as a Crime or Violation of International Law [Second Edition]
1 March 2017
This resource contains guidelines for the best practice of documenting and investigating sexual violence as a crime under international law. It is designed to assist human rights practitioners, international and national authorities, civil society, and investigators with practical guidance on managing risks, collecting and handling evidence, and addressing trauma. Chapter Sixteen (p.244-262) is dedicated to sexual violence against children, including the legal framework, ethical considerations, and guidance on engaging child witnesses and survivors. The first edition of the resource can be found on the same page in various languages including English, French, Spanish, Arabic, Serbo-Croatian, Farsi, Burmese, Albanian, and Swahili.
Checklist for Drafting Children and Armed Conflict Provisions in Ceasefire and Peace Agreements
31 October 2016
This checklist for mediators and those involved in negotiating peace terms will assist in ensuring that child protection is represented in the language of peace agreements. Acknowledging the significance of incorporating children early on in the peace process, this source provides guidance on the effective release and reintegration of child soldiers and integrating the six grave violations against children during armed conflict into transitional justice mechanisms to end impunity and ensure children's access to justice. It also outlines the role of former child soldiers in the transition to peace as primarily victims who must be reintegrated into society with long-term support rather than other armed group members who may be integrated into the regular armed forces.
Supporting reconciliation in post-conflict situations
2 October 2016
This report covers several approaches to supporting reconciliation in post-conflict contexts. Designed as an e-learning document, the report provides general information about a variety of approaches, pros and cons of said approaches, indications of what roles donors can play, and covers Islamic reconciliation modalities available.
Handbook on Complementarity- An Introduction to the Role of National Courts and the ICC in Prosecuting International Crimes
22 July 2016
This Handbook is intended to explain the main issues of law and practice related to complementarity for those who are not legal specialists. It is aimed at organizations and individuals that are not specicalists on the International Criminal Court or criminal law issues. It supports those who want to understand the basic legal issues as well as the broader contextual matters connected to complementarity by explaining how the complementarity regime works. After reading this handbook, readers should have a basic understanding of the ICC, the concept of complementarity, how key cases on the issue have been decided, what the different stages of the admissibility process entail, what it means for national legal systems, and what it means for other national actors, including civil society and victims’ representatives. Case studies include the following countries: Afghanistan, Colombia, Cote d’Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, and Libya. This resource is also available in French.
Reducing Risk, Strengthening Resilience: Toward the Structural Prevention of Atrocity Crimes
1 April 2016
This is a policy brief that outlines how to apply structural prevention of atrocity crimes, particularly at the national and local level. The recommendations intend to assist actors to reduce the occurrence of risk factors of atrocities and increase societal resilience. Particular to addressing serious violations against children in armed conflict, this brief includes rule of law, accountability, and commitment to guarantees of non-recurrence of violations as key to prevention and resilience. Also recommended is reforming legal and judicial systems for greater accountability and ensuring the legal empowerment of marginalized communities.
Accountability and Reconciliation in Peace Processes
31 December 2015
Through international case studies and analysis of different methods, this paper examines the range of measures that may help societies to achieve accountability and reconciliation, and explores the challenges faced in this field. Successful accountability measures draw on a critical understanding of experience from elsewhere, carefully adapted to the social, political and cultural context and questions of feasibility. This Handbook includes recommendations on making provisions for accountability and reconciliation in peace negotiations and methods for accountability and reconciliation, with case studies from Northern Ireland, Cambodia, and Rwanda.
Education and Transitional Justice: Opportunities and Challenges for Peacebuilding
16 November 2015
This report, part of a joint research project by ICTJ and UNICEF on the intersections of education, transitional justice, and peacebuilding, explores how a transitional justice framework can help to identify educational deficits relating to the logic of past conflict and/or repression and inform the reconstruction of the education sector. Drawing on comparative experiences from around the world, it looks at how formal and informal education can help facilitate the work of transitional justice measures and vice versa. Page 35 begins practical recommendations for Transitional Justice practitioners, policymakers, civil society actors, education practitioners, policymakers, and donors. For more on the project, visit the project webpage: https://www.ictj.org/our-work/research/education-peacebuilding
Case Example: Colombia
7 October 2015
This case example is a complementary resource to the "Children in Armed Conflict Accountability Framework". It demonstrates the practical application of the Framework in Colombia. This is the second in a series of case examples by Conflict Dynamics International to demonstrate how individuals and organizations working in child protection, justice, peacebuilding, and other fields can apply the CAC Accountability Framework in a specific context. The information presented in this case example is intended to illustrate the practical application of the Framework in the context of Colombia. It is not intended to provide a comprehensive review of the state of accountability for serious violations of international law committed against children in armed conflict in Colombia. This tool is also available in Spanish in this database and on the webpage above "CAC Accountability Framework".
Ejemplo de caso: Colombia
7 October 2015
Este ejemplo de caso es un recurso complementario del "Marco de Rendición de Cuentas frente a los Niños, las Niñas y los Jóvenes Afectados por los Conflictos Armados: Un marco para la promoción de la rendición de cuentas a las violaciones graves cometidas contra los niños, las niñas y los jóvenes afectados por los conflictos armados" (“Marco de Rendición de Cuentas sobre NNJ”), que muestra la aplicación práctica del Marco de Rendición de Cuentas sobre NNJ en Colombia. Ésta es la segunda de las series de ejemplos de casos por la Conflict Dynamics International que muestra cómo las personas y las organizaciones trabajan en la protección de la niñez y la juventud, la justicia, la consolidación de la paz, y otros campo pueden aplicar al Marco de Rendición de Cuentas sobre NNJ en un contexto específico.
Case Example: Democratic Republic of the Congo
9 June 2015
This case example is a complementary resource to the "Children in Armed Conflict Accountability Framework". It demonstrates the practical application of the Framework in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). This is the first in a series of case examples by Conflict Dynamics International to demonstrate how individuals and organizations working in child protection, justice, peacebuilding, and other fields can apply the CAC Accountability Framework in a specific context. This tool is also available in French in this database and on the webpage above "CAC Accountability Framework".
Exemple de cas : République démocratique du Congo
9 June 2015
Cet exemple de cas constitue un complément au «Cadre relatif à l’obligation redditionnelle afférente aux enfants dans les conflits armés : Un Cadre pour la promotion de l’obligation redditionnelle pour violations graves commises contre les enfants en période de conflit armé (ECA) » (« Le Cadre relatif à l’obligation redditionnelle ECA »). Il présente l’application pratique du Cadre relatif à l’obligationredditionnelle ECA en République démocratique du Congo (RDC). Il s’agit de la première d’une série d’exemples de cas réalisées par Conflict Dynamics International afin d’illustrer la façon dont les personnes et les organisations travaillant dans les secteurs de la protection de l’enfant, la justice, la consolidation de la paix et autres domaines peuvent appliquer le Cadre relatif à l’obligation redditionnelle ECA dans un contexte précis.
Enforced Disappearance and Extrajudicial Execution: Investigation and Sanction (A Practitioners Guide)
1 March 2015
This resource supports investigating and punishing crimes of enforced disappearance and extrajudicial execution. It is based off a series of seminars and includes the perspectives of judges, prosecutors, non-governmental organizations, local authorities, journalists, and human rights practitioners. In addition to contextualizing both crimes under international law and in armed conflict, the resource includes guidance for investigation, using forensic science, and identifying direct and indirect victims of enforced disappearance. It discusses three specific situations (p.48-56) in which children are considered victims of enforced disappearance: when subject to enforced disappearance; when born during the captivity of a mother subjected to enforced disappearance; and when a parent, legal guardian, or other relative is subject to enforced disappearance. This resource was written in Spanish and translated to English, and is available in both languages.
Children in Armed Conflict Accountability Framework: A Framework for Advancing Accountability for Serious Violations against Children in Armed Conflict
This Framework is a practical resource that promotes accountability for serious violations of international law committed against children in armed conflict (CAC). It responds to the significant gap that exists in preventing and remedying these serious violations - and is designed to assist policymakers and practitioners working at all levels to bridge this gap. It provides individuals and organizations working in child protection, justice, peacebuilding, and related fields with a comprehensive definition and structure for understanding CAC accountability and practical guidance for developing well-informed, context-specific, and feasible options for advancing CAC accountability.
Marco de Rendición de Cuentas frente a los niños, las niñas y los jóvenes afectados por los conflictos armados
This resource is the Spanish version of the "Children in Armed Conflict Accountability Framework." El Marco de Rendición de Cuentas frente a los niños, las niñas y los jóvenes afectados por los conflictos armados es un recurso práctico que promueve mecanismos para abordar casos de violaciones graves derecho internacional cometidas contra los niños, las niñas y los jóvenes en situaciones de conflicto armado (rendición de cuentas sobre NNJ). Elaborado como respuesta al importante vacío existente en materia de prevención y reparación de este tipo de violaciones, este Marco aporta los siguientes elementos: 1. una definición completa y estructura para entender la cuestión de la rendición de cuentas sobre NNJ; 2. orientaciones metodológicas prácticas que pueden ser adaptadas y aplicadas en diferentes contextos con el objeto de aumentar las acciones de rendición de cuentas sobre NNJ.
The 1612 Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism: A Resource Pack for NGOs
This resource provides an overview of the UN's Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism (MRM), which documents the six grave violations perpetrated against children in situations of armed conflict. It aims to provide tools for non-governmental organizations participating in the MRM to mainstream their engagement. Tools include guiding questions, checklists, self-assessments and sample language. The resource also considers case studies from the Gaza Strip, Myanmar, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and Colombia.
International Protocol on the Documentation and Investigation of Sexual Violence in Conflict: Basic Standards of Best Practices on the Documentation of Sexual Violence as a Crime under International Law
11 June 2014
This resource lays out the basic principles for the documentation of sexual violence as a crime under international law. Human rights and justice practitioners, as well as national and local security, judicial, law enforcement and investigative institutions may use these guidelines to establish an investigation and documentation process, conduct interviews, and manage evidence. Page 42 provides guidance on identifying child survivors and witnesses. Page 59 provides instruction on interviewing children.
Field Manual: Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism on Grave Violations Against Children in Situations of Armed Conflict
This resource is intended for practitioners implementing the Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism (MRM) and covers technical components of the MRM. It considers issues such as guiding principles, monitoring, information management, reporting, and engaging with parties to the conflict, as well as guidance on both establishing and phasing out the MRM. The annexes include action plan templates, listing and delisting criteria, and the international legal foundations. This field manual is part of the MRM Tools website, which also includes the MRM Guidelines, Training Toolkit, and Global Good Practices Study.
Guidelines: Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism on Grave Violations against Children in Situations of Armed Conflict
This resource describes the Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism (MRM) and its efforts to achieve accountability and compliance with international law and child protection standards. Intended for practitioners implementing the MRM, this resource outlines the roles and responsibilities for implementing actors, reporting requirements, and linkages between the MRM and response and advocacy. These guidelines are part of the MRM Tools website, which also includes the MRM Field Manual, Training Toolkit, and Global Good Practices Study.
Protect Schools and Hospitals: Guidance Note on Security Council Resolution 1998
This resource is intended to provide practical guidance for UN and NGO partners in the field implementing Security Council Resolution 1998 (2011), which prohibits attacks on schools and hospitals. This resource aims to strengthen monitoring and reporting on attacks on schools and hospitals by providing guidance on monitoring and reporting, advocacy, and partnerships. This resource is intended to complement the MRM Field Manual and MRM Guidelines.
Establishing a Vetting Mechanism for the Security Forces of the Democratic Republic of Congo
The 2013 benchmarks of the national follow-up mechanisms for the Peace, Stability and Cooperation Framework Agreement for Congo and the Region included the establishment of a vetting mechanism. This resource describes how such a mechanism could work in the DRC context and how it differs from the human rights screening process of MONUSCO, the UN peacekeeping mission.
Protection of Witnesses, Victims and Staff in Monitoring, Reporting, and Fact-Finding Mechanisms
7 February 2014
One dilemma that practitioners face in serving on monitoring, reporting, and fact-finding (MRF) missions concerns the protection of witnesses, victims, and staff. Witnesses' and victims' statements account for the predominant evidence when investigating human rights violations, but in coming forward they put themselves at risk. MRF missions' staff also face security risks. Additionally, the ad hoc nature of such missions is in contrast with the need to ensure protection on a long-term scale. This paper analyzes how past MRF missions have grappled with these risks and measures that can be taken by MRF professionals to mitigate them.
Best Practices Manual for the Investigation and Prosecution of Sexual Violence Crimes in Post-Conflict Regions: Lessons learned from the Office of the Prosecutor for the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
30 January 2014
This resource shares lessons learned and best practices from the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) and outlines the need for a global strategy to deal with the investigation and prosecution of sexual violence crimes. It recognizes that sexual violence is committed against women, men, and children. It examines the investigation phase, pre-trial and trial phase, and appeal and post-trial phase. Annex D provides an example investigation work plan. Annex E provides an interview checklist.
The Role of Communities in Protecting Education from Attack: Lessons Learned
This resource lays out guidelines for implementing programs that protect education from attack. Included is a 10-step guideline for working in collaboration with local communities, examples for various case studies around the world, and strategies for staffing, working with local partners, and using child participation. The document uses Cote d’Ivoire as a case study of how communities worked with UN agencies and international NGOs and presents key findings.
Global Good Practices Study: Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism on Grave Violations against Children in Situations of Armed Conflict
This resource examines lessons learned and good practices from the field. Developed by MRM task-force co-chairs and child protection practitioners, this resource considers issues such as establishing and phasing out the MRM, monitoring and reporting grave violations, information management systems, accountability, engaging parties to the conflict, advocacy, regional cooperation, and child participation. This study is part of the MRM Tools website, which also includes the MRM Guidelines, Training Toolkit, and Global Good Practices Study.
Education and the Law of Reparations in Insecurity and Armed Conflict
With a focus on reparations, this resource examines how attacks against education during insecurity and armed conflict have previously been redressed and how they may be redressed in the future. It considers education as a form of reparation and explores how education may minimize the risk of future conflict. The appendix includes international and regional treaties, as well as relevant cases.
Annex XVII: Model legislative provisions on the recruitment or use of children in armed conflict
23 May 2013
Part of the Manual on Domestic Implementation of International Humanitarian Law (IHL), this resource provides two possible model legislative provisions intended to guide States in the drafting of legislation which prohibits the recruitment or use of children in armed conflict. The first model text uses the “straight 18” approach while the second text follows existing provisions in treaty and customary law. This resource provides commentary on the models, as well as sources from international law, national legislation, and other practice.
A Checklist for Mainstreaming: Children and Armed Conflict Friendly Resolutions
This resource provides a ten-point checklist to assist Security Council experts and others in mainstreaming the protection of children affected by armed conflict in country-specific Security Council resolutions. This list includes encouraging the implementation of action plans, using sanctions to pressure perpetrators, demanding accountability, and encouraging DDRRR (disarmament, demobilization, repatriation, reintegration and resettlement). This resource also contains a compilation of Security Council Resolutions on Children and Armed Conflict approved by the UN.
100 Best Practices in Child Protection
A collection of successful initiatives by civil society organizations and government agencies, this resource provides examples of initiatives aimed at child protection. Part VI on page 90 examines child protection initiatives in situations of emergency and armed conflict, with examples from Iraq, Uganda, Gaza, Liberia, and Rwanda. Part VII on page 100 provides examples of child protection initiatives in the justice system.
Engaging Children and Youth in Transitional Justice Processes: Guidance for Outreach Programs
This resource examines including children and youth in outreach programming for transitional justice measures. It provides components and structural approaches to planning outreach programs and addresses issues such as security and protection, psychosocial support, and coordination with external actors. The appendix includes a sample image release form and UNICEF Principles for Ethical Reporting on Children.
Lessons in War: Military Use of Schools and other Education Institutions during Conflict
This resource outlines the military use of education institutions and the consequences of such use on students, teachers, and scholars. It includes an overview a list of initiatives to address armed forces’ and armed groups’ use of education institutions, including the UN Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism, Committee of the Rights of the Child, and voluntary commitments by non-state armed groups. It also provides relevant laws restricting the use of education institutions by armed forces and groups.
Submission on the principles to be applied, and the procedure to be followed by the chamber with regard to reparations
10 May 2012
This resource contains UNICEF’s submission to the International Criminal Court in the prosecution against Thomas Lubanga Dyilo from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The document contains UNICEF’s recommendations for the principles and criteria that should guide the ICC’s decisions to awarding reparations.
Informal Justice Systems: Charting a Course for Human Rights-Based Engagement
This resource explores how informal justice systems and programs that include such systems can promote respect for human rights. It provides an overview of issues that international development and justice actors should consider before involvement informal justice mechanisms. This resource considers the place of children’s rights and women’s rights within informal justice systems.
Summary of ICTJ’s Recommendations to the ICC on Reparations in the Lubanga Case
This resource summarizes the ICTJ’s submission to the International Criminal Court (ICC) giving recommendations on reparations to victims in the Lubanga case. Recommendations included: ensuring information and access to justice for victims; holding reparations hearings within the Democratic Republic of the Congo; designing a combination of compensation, rehabilitation, satisfaction, and symbolic reparations depending on the category of victim; conducting needs assessment and gender analysis; involving communities; and ensuring perpetrators pay reparations.
Working with Men and Boy Survivors of Sexual and Gender-Based Violence in Forced Displacement
Intended to emphasize programs on sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) that include men and boys, this resource provides guidance on accessing survivors, providing protection, and delivering medical, legal, and social services. It contains key considerations for inclusive SGBV programming and a list of key resources.
Study on Field-based Programmatic Measures to Protect Education from Attack
This resource outlines types of programmatic measures to protect education from attack under four headings: protection, prevention, advocacy, and monitoring and reporting. Attacks against education include attacks against students, educators, and other educational personnel at educational institutions. Recommended programmatic measures range from local initiatives to systemic-level interventions intended to prevent conflict. The annex includes 20 country-specific examples.
Children and Justice During and in the Aftermath of Armed Conflict
This resource supports advocacy initiatives aimed at strengthening States’ protection of children’s rights and best interests during and after armed conflict. It examines children as victims and witnesses in judicial processes such as courts and tribunals, and in non-judicial processes such as truth and reconciliation commissions and traditional and restorative justice mechanisms. This report also looks at the concepts of reparations and reintegration. It uses the international legal framework and case studies to create recommendations for States, UN agencies, civil society organizations, and child protection actors.
Through a New Lens: A Child-Sensitive Approach to Transitional Justice
Based on assessments of Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, and Nepal, this resource examines the ways in which transitional justice can engage children and consider their needs. It assesses the extent to which truth-seeking mechanisms, criminal justice, reparations, and institutional reform have raised awareness about the victimization of children.
Bridging the Accountability Gap: New Approaches to Addressing Violations Against Children in Armed Conflict
This resource examines the accountability gap for violations committed against children in situations of armed conflict. It evaluates actions to attain accountability through efforts at the national level, UN Security Council, and international level. The report provides several policy options to address the accountability gap and features case studies in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Colombia.
Guide for setting-up Child Friendly Complaints and Response Mechanisms (CRMs): Lessons Learnt from Save the Children’s CRM in Dadaab Refugee Camp
This resource provides guidance on creating a complaints and response mechanism (CRM) in a child-friendly manner. Using a pilot case study from Ifo Camp, Dabaab, North Eastern Kenya, this resource provides information on setting up a CRM, awareness raising, recording complaints, challenges, and lessons learned. The annex includes a stakeholder mapping tools used during their consultations with children.
Keeping Children Safe Toolkit: A Toolkit for child protection
Comprising of five tools, this resource is intended for international NGOs, international organizations, government partners, or other organizations that require child protection measures. Tool 1 describes protection standards; tool 2 provides guidelines on how agencies can implement child protection measures; tools 3, 4, and 5 provide training exercises and materials to understand child protection, child protection in emergency contexts, as well as children’s participation. Page 53 of Tool 2 provides guidance on preventing harm to children during emergency or humanitarian crises
Children and Truth Commissions
This resource is intended to inform the work of child protection advocates and organizations, legal experts and other professionals in their efforts to protect the rights of children involved in truth and reconciliation processes. It includes emerging good practices and recommended procedures for children’s participation in truth commissions. The annex also provides model checklists for taking statements from children and model memorandum-of-understanding (MOU) agreements between truth commissions and child protection agencies.
Children and Security Sector Reform in Post-conflict Peace-building
This resource considers children and youth in the post-conflict peacebuilding phase of restoring justice and security. It discusses national structures and mechanisms, such as hybrid courts, domestic prosecution, and truth commissions, and articulates their relevance to children and young people. This report also explores the role of civil society organizations in building accountability and good governance within the security sector.
Prosecuting International Crimes Against Children: The Legal Framework
This resource provides an overview of state obligations under international law to prosecute persons accused of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, torture and enforced disappearances, specifically focusing on crimes against children. Using an example of the Omar Khadr case, this resource also explores international norms regarding children accused of participating in the commission of these crimes.
Psychosocial Support for Children: Protecting the Rights of Child Victims and Witnesses in Transitional Justice Processes
This resource outlines the importance of psychosocial support for children in their participation in transitional justice mechanisms, such as international tribunals, hybrid tribunals, and truth commissions. It also provides an overview of policies and procedures which protect the rights of child participants in truth, justice, and reconciliation efforts.
DDR, Transitional Justice, and the Reintegration of Former Child Combatants
This resource explores how transitional justice measures may positively affect former child combatants by reducing social exclusion from their communities. It considers several issues in relation to reintegration of children; such issues include truth-telling, reparations, local justice, and prosecutions.
Children and Armed Conflict: A Guide to International Humanitarian and Human Rights Law
This resource provides an overview of the international legal framework, and explains the practical applicability of the law and standards as they relate to children and armed conflict. This resource also discusses internally displaced children; sexual violence against children; child labor; children and landmines and cluster bombs; children and small armed and light weapons; child victims, witnesses and perpetrators of crimes; and the role of children in peace processes.
Report and Proposals for the Implementation of Reparations in Sierra Leone
This resource evaluates a one-year project by the UN and the Government of Sierra Leone to implement the recommendations for reparations found the Sierra Leone Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s Final Report. The report summarizes the findings of the evaluation and provides recommendations to improve the Sierra Leone reparations program.
The Six Grave Violations against Children during Armed Conflict: The Legal Foundation
This resource lays out the legal basis for the UN Security Council’s prioritization of six grave violations committed against children during armed conflict. It is intended to serve as a legal guide to help strengthen child protection and end impunity of crimes. It draws on international humanitarian law, human rights law, jurisprudence, and UN Security Council resolutions to establish killing and maiming, recruitment and use in conflict, rape and sexual violence, abduction, attacks against schools and hospitals, and denial of humanitarian access as the most serious crimes committed against children in situations of armed conflict.
Knowledge on Fire: Attacks on Education in Afghanistan, Risks and Measures for Successful Mitigation
A case study of Afghanistan, this resource provides an overview of threats and attacks on education, including the nature of attacks and risk factors. It concludes with recommendations about how to mitigate and prevent attacks on schools, paying special attention to the roles of communities.
Children’s and Adolescents’ Participation and Protection From Sexual Abuse and Exploitation
This resource highlights government commitments regarding the participation of children and adolescents in combating sexual abuse and exploitation. It includes children’s recommendations to end abuse and exploitation and provides recommendations for strengthening child and youth participation in child protection.
What is Transitional Justice?
1 January 2009
This two-page fact sheet describes transitional justice; where it came from and how it is used as a response to systematic or widespread violations of human rights. The aims of transitional justice will vary depending on the context but these features are constant: the recognition of the dignity of individuals; the redress and acknowledgment of violations; and the aim to prevent them happening again. Transitional justice is often approached in the following forms: criminal prosecutions, truth seeking/fact finding, reparations, reforms. More information is also available on the International Center for Transitional Justice website: https://www.ictj.org/about/transitional-justice
ARC Resource Pack: A capacity-building tool for child protection in and after emergencies
This resource is a collection of training materials to help ensure effective child protection programming and protection systems. Primarily intended for facilitators and trainers, programmers who work on child rights or child protection, and members of child protection clusters, this resource pack includes a user guide, training manual, and facilitator’s toolkit. Foundation modules include topics such as participation and inclusion, advocacy, community mobilization, and psychosocial support. Also included are seven critical issue modules, with module 7 on children associated with armed forces or armed groups.
ICTY Manual on Developed Practices
This resource shares the International Criminal Tribunal of Yugoslavia’s (ICTY) experiences and established practices in the prosecution and adjudication of cases involving war crimes and serious violations of international humanitarian law. This manual is intended for actors prosecuting crimes during armed conflict in national and international jurisdictions. It provides guidelines on opening an investigation and information gathering, interviewing witnesses, indictments, issuing arrest warrants, pre-trial proceedings, trial and case management, and enforcement of sentences.
Rule-of-Law Tools for Post-Conflict States: Amnesties
Intended for practitioners, this resource explores the concept of amnesty and considers the relationship between amnesties and other processes of transitional justice, such as truth commissions, the right to remedy and reparations, and disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programs. This resource also incorporates relevant rules of international law and United Nations policy when drafting amnesties.
Handbook on Legislative Reform: Realising Children’s Rights, Vol. 1
In order to support implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), this resource examines constitutional and legislative reforms in favor of the rights of children. Taking a human rights-based approach, it considers various guiding principles, rights of victims, prevention, criminalization, and processes and entry points for constitutional and legislative reforms.
Guidance Note of the Secretary-General: UN Approach to Justice for Children
This resource is intended to provide guidance for children’s activities in pre-crisis, crisis, and post-crisis contexts, with particular attention to achieving justice for children at the national level. This resource includes nine guiding principles and a framework for a justice approach to child protection and child participation.
Transitional Justice: Information Handbook
This resource looks at the goals of transitional justice post-conflict and factors for determining appropriate transitional justice mechanisms. It provides guidelines on criminal prosecutions, truth commissions, vetting, reparations and compensation.
Establishing Gender-Based Violence Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for Multi-sectoral and Inter-organizational Prevention and Response to Gender-based Violence in Humanitarian Settings
Developed in collaboration with UN agencies, government, and non-governmental and community-based organizations, this resource sets out the process for developing a standard operating procedure (SOP) to prevent and respond to gender-based violence (GBV) in various stages of an emergency. An SOP template is available beginning on page 7.
UNHCR Handbook for the Protection of Women and Girls
This resource provides an overview of the legal standards and responsibilities to protect women and girls. It discusses issues such as displacement, prevention, reintegration, participation in peacebuilding processes, and the administration of justice during displacement for formal, traditional, and transitional mechanisms. Chapter 6 provides an overview of the international and regional legal framework. This resource is intended for UNHRC staff, both at headquarters and in the field, and protection partners.
Children as Active Citizens: A Policy and Programme Guide
This resource considers commitments and obligations for children’s civil rights and civic engagement in East Asia and the Pacific. It aims to strengthen children’s civil rights and provides guidance on capacities, structures, and resources needed to strengthen children’s civil rights. The annex includes a checklist to assess children’s citizenship and civil rights at the national level. This resource is intended for decision-makers at the national level and service providers to realize civil rights for children.
No One to Turn to: Under-reporting of child sexual exploitation and abuse by aid workers and peacekeepers
Based on focus group interviews and consultations with children and adults living in chronic emergencies, as well as humanitarian professionals, this resource provides a snapshot on the under-reporting of sexual exploitation by aid workers and peacekeepers. Recommendations, which begin on page 22, include building effective local complaints mechanisms, establishing a new global watchdog, and tackling the root causes of abuse.
Rule of Law tools for Post-Conflict States: Reparations Programmes
This resource provides a practical guide for implementing effective reparations programs. It focuses on establishing out-of-court reparations programs to redress gross and serious violations of human rights in conflict settings. It also examines kinds of benefits, financing reparations, linking with other justice measures, and making programs gender-sensitive.
Implementation Handbook for the Convention on the Rights of the Child
This resource is intended as a practical guide for explaining and implementing the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the two Optional Protocols. This resource summarizes each article and provides comments, recommendations, and an implementation checklist. The appendices include a list of other key legal and policy instruments.
Justice as Prevention: Vetting Public Employees in Transitional Societies
The second volume in the ICTJ’s Advancing Transitional Justice Series, this resource is comprised of a collection of essays that explores the issue of vetting in a variety of countries and contexts. Chapter 13 examines vetting and transitional justice. The appendix includes operational guidelines for vetting public employees in post-conflict settings.
Implementing Victims’ Rights: A Handbook on the Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation
This resource was created as a companion to the UN’s Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights Law and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law. It was intended to help guide non-governmental and civil society organizations advocate for victims’ rights as primary concern in state action.
Protecting Children from Sexual Exploitation & Sexual Violence in Disaster & Emergency Situations: A guide for local & community based organisations
This resource aims to provide guidance for local grassroots organizations in the protection of children from sexual violence and sexual exploitation. It explores relevant legal and policy frameworks and existing protection frameworks. This resource also includes key actions to minimizing the risks of sexual violence, such as advocacy and campaigning, protection committees, creating safe spaces, and psychosocial support and education. The annex includes checklists for action.
Child and Youth Participation Resource Guide
This resource compiles materials on child and youth participation, including children’s participation in emergencies, conflict situations and peace building. Part four focuses on children’s involvement in political decision making, such as their role in policy analysis in National Plans of Action, Committee on the Rights of the Child, and other organizations and conferences.
Rule-of-Law Tools for Post-Conflict States: Mapping the justice sector
This resource aims to assist UN missions and transitional administrations in mapping the justice sector to understand how it operates in states before and during conflict. This resource provides an overview of key institutions, mechanisms, and priorities such as linkages between institutions and oversight bodies or accountability mechanisms. Page 14 focuses on traditional justice.
Rule-of-Law Tools for Post-Conflict States: Prosecution initiatives
This resource lays out the basic considerations for prosecution initiatives and aims to assist United Nations staff when addressing challenges to prosecuting perpetrators of genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes. It focuses on the technical, domestic challenges of such prosecutions and highlights considerations that should be applied to all prosecutorial initiatives. It examines strategic considerations, trial management and due process, and forms of interventions such as hybrid tribunals.
Rule-of-Law Tools for Post-Conflict States: Truth Commissions
This resource establishes principles and standards for the creation of truth commissions and explores core operational activities such as statement-taking, building a database, research and investigations, public hearings, public outreach, and report writing. It also explores the link between truth commissions, prosecutions, reparations, vetting, and reforms. The role of national and international NGOs in truth commissions is considered. Meant to assist field missions and transitional administrations, this resource uses lessons learned from previous UN field missions in Sierra Leone and Timor-Leste.
Rule-of-Law Tools for Post-Conflict States: Vetting: an operational framework
Written for United Nations field staff and others responsible for institutional and personnel reform in post-conflict states, this resource provides an overview of vetting as a tool of institutional reform and transitional justice. It also explores the conditions of transitional personnel reform, operational guidelines for assessment and designing the vetting process, and considerations regarding the political conditions surrounding reform.
Vetting Public Employees in Post-Conflict Settings: Operational Guidelines
This resource provides guidance on vetting in post-conflict settings. It includes an overview of factors that determine a vetting process, designing a vetting process, different types of vetting, and other relevant institutional reforms. The annex includes a vetting checklist, a capacity and integrity framework, and relevant conventions and codes for vetting in security and judicial sectors.
Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to Remedy and Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights Law and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law
This UN General Assembly resolution provides principles related to State's obligations concerning reparations to victims of international humanitarian and human rights abuses. Victims have a right to be treated humanely and with respect, to access justice and relevant information, and to be afforded adequate and effective reparation without discrimination.
Fighting back: Child and community-led strategies to avoid children’s recruitment into armed forces and groups in West Africa
Using case studies from Ivory Coast, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, this resource focuses on strategies to prevent children’s recruitment in armed forces and groups. Strategies to prevent recruitment include developing targeted messages, avoiding separation, providing alternative care, schooling and skills training, and improving livelihoods. Intended to inform initiatives by governments, the UN, and non-governmental organizations, this resource also provides an overview of what constitutes voluntary and forced recruitment.
Gender-Based Violence Legal Aid: A Participatory Toolkit
This resource is intended to assist field staff design gender-based violence (GBV) services and GBV legal aid using a participatory approach. Intended for actors in the humanitarian, justice, and security sector, this toolkit provides a preliminary assessment tool, action planning worksheets, and guidelines and indicators on monitoring and evaluating gender-based violence programs.
Sierra Leone Truth and Reconciliation Commissions Reports
This resource is the final report of the Sierra Leone Truth and Reconciliation Commission, held from 2002 to 2004. Volume Two, Chapter 3 contains recommendations concerning legal, political, and administrative reforms and measures, and includes a specific category for children. Volume Two, Chapter 4 provides the legal basis for reparations, lists categories for eligible beneficiaries, including children, and makes recommendations on according the benefits and effectively implementing the reparation program.
Human Rights Standards and Practice for the Police: Expanded Pocket Book on Human Rights for the Police
Part of OHCHR’s professional training series, this resource organizes major human rights topics for police. Relevant international human rights standards on topics such as investigations, arrest, detention and the use of force are explored. This resource is designed to complement OHCHR’s International Human Rights Standards for Law Enforcement and Human Rights and Law Enforcement: A Trainer’s Guide.
Truth and Reconciliation Report for the Children of Sierra Leone, Child-friendly version
This resource provides an example of a child-friendly version of a Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) Report. Sierra Leone’s TRC was the first truth commission to produce a child-friendly report to engage children and document children’s experiences during the civil war.
Guide to the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict
This resource aims to help child protection actors within governmental and non-governmental organizations advocate for the ratification and implementation of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict (OPAC). This resource emphasizes the monitoring and reporting requirements of the Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC).
Sexual and Gender-Based Violence against Refugees, Returnees and Internally Displaced Persons: Guidelines for Prevention and Response
This resource provides guidance for protection of refugees against sexual and gender-based violence. It provides guiding principles and considers prevention strategies through transforming socio-cultural norms, rebuilding community support systems, improving accountability systems, and monitoring and documenting of sexual and gender-based violence. The annex includes a code of conduct and sample report forms.
Children and Armed Conflict: International Standards for Action
This resource is a compilation of legal standards and norms regarding children and armed conflict, including the rights of the child, international humanitarian law, law on refugees and internally displaced persons, international criminal law, and UN Security Council resolutions.
International Criminal Justice and Children
This resource introduces the international framework for children and justice, including international legal protection standards and judicial and non-judicial accountability mechanisms. It takes a particular look at protection of children in times of war and use of child soldiers, as well as protection of children as victims and witnesses. In particular, it outlines the role of the International Criminal Court (ICC), as well as its relation to national justice systems. Finally, it gives some concrete recommendations on the role of children in non-judicial mechanisms like truth commissions and traditional accountability mechanisms.
Children Participating in Research, Monitoring and Evaluation - Ethics and your responsibility as a manager
This resource considers ethical issues and challenges around involving children in M&E programs given children’s right to part to participate. It provides an overview of what participation means and issues such as accountability, protection of children’s best interests, informing children, informed consent, and equity and non-discrimination. It also includes a checklist of questions for research and monitoring and evaluation managers when including child participation in research.
Human Rights and Law Enforcement: A Trainer’s Guide on Human Rights for the Police
Part of OHCHR’s professional training series, this resource provides an outline of training on human rights topics, group exercises, instructions, guidance for trainers, and handouts, including on the protection of juveniles. This resource is designed to complement OHCHR’s International Human Rights Standards for Law Enforcement and the Human Rights Standards and Practice for the Police: Expanded Pocket Book on Human Rights for the Police.
International Human Rights Standards for Law Enforcement: A Pocket Book on Human Rights for the Police
This resource summarizes relevant international standards for police regarding their lawful and humane functions in democratic societies. It contains relevant standards for the protection of juveniles and the human rights of women. It is designed to complement OHCHR’s Human Rights and Law Enforcement: A Trainer’s Guide on Human Rights for the Police and Human Rights Standards and Practice for the Police: Expanded Pocket Book on Human Rights for the Police.
Children and The Truth and Reconciliation Commission for Sierra Leone: Recommendations for policies and procedures for addressing and involving children in the Truth and Reconciliation Commission
This resource contains recommendations from a technical meeting on children for the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) of Sierra Leone held in 2001. The report outlines guiding principles for the truth and reconciliation commission, which include psycho-social support for children and child friendly environments. The resource concludes with participating children’s views and expectations of the TRC.
Monitoring and Investigating Human Rights Abuses in Armed Conflict
This resource considers monitoring human rights abuses in situations of armed conflict and provides information required to prepare for fact-finding missions, as well as guidelines on how to investigate and verify information and determine sufficient proof. The annexes include relevant international and regional human rights laws in Africa. An overview of human rights abuses against children in situations of armed conflict is provided on page 33.
Ukweli: Handbook on Monitoring and Documenting Human Rights Violations in Africa
This resource defines key activities related to human rights contact-building, monitoring, fact-finding, and documenting. It also defines the principles of accuracy, confidentiality, impartiality, and gender-sensitivity for conducting research on human rights violations. Based on the experience of African human rights defenders, this resource provides guidance for national and local human rights organizations and activists who are new to human rights research and human rights law. An accompanying ‘A Handbook for Community Activists’ is also available.
Justice in Matters involving child victims and witnesses of crime: Online training
This free online self-learning tool is intended for practitioners working in an area related to child victims and witnesses of crime. Registration is required.
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